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Martian Geometry Book 4

 

 

Argd1445a2

 

Hypothesis

 

Four parabolic dams are shown, there would be several more if the resolution was better.

 

 

Argd1448

 

Hypothesis

 

There may be some dams here, A at 11 o’clock looks like a dam as does at 7 o’clock second leg. At 4 o’clock there is a double wall, like an inner and outer parabola. A shows a small dam at 8 o’clock, one at 7 o’clock, and two more at 4 and 5 o’clock. C shows more dams, D and E may be eroded dams.

 

 

Argd1448a

 

Hypothesis

 

A parabola is shown.

 

 

Argd1453

 

Hypothesis

 

These are similar to the walled fields in Hellas Crater, this is in Argyre Crater so perhaps both have a large lake. A shows some walls, B shows a walled field with the wall from 9 to 11 o’clock having another wall parallel to its left. C may be more walled fields or pit dams. D also might have many segments that would hold water. E at 8 o’clock looks like a small elliptical dam. F shows a large enclosure.

 

 

Argd1454

 

Hypothesis

 

A at 12 o’clock 3rd leg shows regular grooves in the wall, perhaps pillars as it erodes. At 7 o’clock is a double wall. B shows more of these pillars between 1 and 4 o’clock, also at 5 o’clock. C and D show more walls.

 

 

Argd1455

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows a parabola, strengthening the evidence of these walls being artificial The enclosure at A at 6 o’clock 3rdleg is also roughly symmetrical. B shows more walls.

 

 

Argd1455a

 

Hypothesis

 

Two parabolas are shown.

 

 

Argd1457

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows a circular wall at 4 o’clock but this would not be a crater, a straight wall at 7 and another at 8 o’clock. Between A and C is a double wall, at 6 o’clock a right angle. D shows some depressions that can be pit dams or collapsed hollow hills.

 

 

Argd1458a

 

Hypothesis

 

Two parabolas are shown, closeups of parts of this image follow. It appears to show a complex irrigation system. The parabolic dam at B seems to have a pipe coming out of it at 12 o’clock, it also has vertical grooves on the sides at 1 o’clock like pillars. The pipe goes down to 8 o’clock connecting to a second pipe off to its left and down to E. B at 4 o’clock is another pipe. C shows another parabolic dam, D at 2 o’clock is probably a parabolic arch.

 

 

Argd1458b

 

Hypothesis

 

This shows a closeup of the pipe, at 11 and 1 o’clock it is straight and connects above ground level onto the dam. At B it is more eroded, to the left it connects to a second pipe. They may be regular pillars along the pipe closer to B like supports.

 

 

Argd1458c

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows some erosion on the dam wall, at 4 o’clock there may be pillars. B shows a flaking off of the cement skin at 11 o’clock, 10 o’clock shows a cavity developing under the dam wall. C would be a water channel and is smooth like cement, at 4 o’clock 2nd leg there is perhaps a second water channel.

 

 

Argd1458c1

 

Hypothesis

 

A parabola fits onto this dam except for the right side, many dams have the parabolic shape in the main load bearing segment then curve differently on the sides. This is also an unadjusted parabola, with the standard Y=x2 dimensions, many parabolic dams are narrower than this.

 

 

Argd1458d

 

Hypothesis

 

This is a closeup of the dam with the pipe connected to it. A shows the top of the pipe may be hollow as if it has collapsed at 10 o’clock, at 11 o’clock there more of these pillars or vertical grooves. They are very evenly spaced without random variations. B may show some erosion as the dam floor cement skin peels off. C shows several layers in the dam wall which appear to be progressively breaking off, D shows more erosion and cracks on the top of the wall.

 

 

Argd1458f

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows how the pipe at 4 o’clock reaches a junction, a second pipe at 6 o’clock goes off to the left over to B where it may enter a water storage area. There are regular marks along the pipe like supports in it. Between B and F there may be a collapsed part of this storage, another between B and D. C shows more layers breaking off along this formation along with the vertical grooves. D also shows vertical grooves at 6 and 7 o’clock, also at 10 o’clock. E shows an artificial looking segment at 2 o’clock, also a water channel turning into a pipe at 10 o’clock. F shows another dam at 7 o’clock and a pipe or cracks at 4 o’clock.

 

 

Argd1458j

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows layers in the dam wall at 8 and 5 o’clock, at 2 o’clock there is a double wall on the first leg. The second leg points to a small water channel. B at 3 o’clock may be a small water storage, at 8 o’clock is a water channel. C shows another water channel and perhaps water storage or dam from 4 to 7 o’clock. D shows regular grooves in the wall at 11 o’clock like pillars. At 8 o’clock there may be the end of the water channel, another water channel is at 1 o’clock second leg. 2 o’clock first leg shows a layer, the second leg shows a parabolic dam. E shows another dam at 7 o’clock, the smooth cement wall at 8 o’clock, and an eroded water channel from 1 to 5 o’clock.

 

 

Argd1458j2

 

Hypothesis

 

Four parabolas are shown, D at 2 o’clock second leg may also be a parabola.

 

 

Argd1462a

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows a parabolic dam with dark soil clogging part of it, from 2 to 4 o’clock the walls is highly eroded with dark soil in the cracks. At 7 o’clock the wall is in good condition. B may have been a parabolic dam, between 6 and 8 o’clock the wall appears to have broken. Water may have run here after no repairs were made with 3 flows shown at C. Alternatively these may be 3 small dams and were constructed after the broken dam wall as a repair. D shows another dam.

 

 

Argd1462a2

 

Hypothesis

 

A parabola is shown.

 

 

Argd1462b

 

Hypothesis

 

A shows a double parabolic dam, the second wall may be for strength or to catch an overflow. B shows another parabolic dam with a break in the dam wall, water has created a water channel going down from it. This implies the water flowed here after the builders were not here to repair the dam. C also shows a double walled dam. D has a double wall, F at 11 o’clock second leg shows a cavity growing under the wall perhaps leading to its collapse. Above E is a parabolic arch, under it may be an arch as well with a dam at 7 o’clock second leg. F between 12 and 10 o’clock shows vertical grooves perhaps for strength. G may be for supporting the dam above it.

 

 

Argd1462b2

 

Hypothesis

 

Three parabolas are shown.

 

 

Argd1462c

 

Hypothesis

 

The dam at A is full of silt, also the dam wall is highly eroded. The vertical grooves in it are more visible. B shows where water has leaved through the dam wall. C at 10 o’clock is probably a buried segment of double wall, at 7 o’clock would be a buried dam. D shows a dam at 6 o’clock and some cracks in the dam wall at 10 o’clock. E and F show other dams.

 

 

Argd1462b2

 

Hypothesis

 

Two parabolas are shown, E is probably also a parabola.

 

 

Argd1467a

 

Hypothesis

 

These dams are in better condition with A probably containing more silt. At 8 o’clock the top layer edge of the dam catches the light more, above 8 o’clock there are regular marks like pillars. At 2 and 4 o’clock the dam layers are more eroded, B also shows these at 10 o’clock. At 8 o’clock the vertical grooves may be for strength, also seed at 1 o’clock. The wall is smooth like cement at 12 o’clock, some layers are seen at 2 o’clock. A shows more vertical grooves above the parabolic arch at 10 o’clock, also some layers in the dam floor at 4, 5, and 7 o’clock. D shows more pillars and another layer.

 

 

Argd1467a2

 

Hypothesis

 

Three parabolas are shown.

 

 

Argd1467b

 

Hypothesis

 

These dams are more highly eroded, A, B, and C show exposed layers. D and E show layers in the dam floors.

 

 

Argd1467b2

 

Hypothesis

 

Two parabolas are shown. B is probably a parabolic arch.

 

 

Argd1467c

 

Hypothesis

 

This segment looks like another straight pipe going underground at A at 4 o’clock, this segment may have collapsed giving a U shaped cross section. A shows a layer or pipe from 10 to 2 o’clock, over to B at 8 o’clock The main pipe appears to have a triangular cross section shown at B at 4 and 7 o’clock, C shows another side of it with some vertical grooves or erosion. D shows a water channel at 6 o’clock, also another one at 7 o’clock.

 

 

Argd1472a

 

Hypothesis

 

A and E show some erosion on the dam floors, the pale material may also be dried salts. B may show a small dam between 4 and 6 o’clock, it may also be a water channel directing the water to the larger dam under the two main ones. To the right of B at 3 o’clock is a narrow water channel. C at 12 o’clock shows some damage on the top of the dam wall, at 2 o’clock second leg the layer in the dam wall may show the construction technique used. D shows more damage to this dam wall at 9, 10, and 11 o’clock, in this area the dam floor is very smooth like cement. The walls at 2, 4, and 7 o’clock ae in good condition, it may be little water came into the lower dam. F shows the dam floor cement breaking up at 7 o’clock, a water channel at 6 o’clock second leg, and a smooth wall at 5 o’clock second leg. G at 3 o’clock may show a small dam or water channel, at 6 o’clock is the edge of the smooth dam floor in the left dam. H shows a smooth dam wall.

 

 

Argd1472a2

 

Hypothesis

 

Two parabolas are shown.

 

 

Argd1474

 

Hypothesis

 

A and B show the edges of a parabolic dam, A at 12 o’clock is probably a water channel. Bis probably cement in the dam wall breaking up, it can indicate how thick it is.

 

 

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